AST XDF Hubble eXtreme Deep Field 20120925 12.54 MB 2382×2078 hs-2012-37-a-full_tif
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94. AST XDF Hubble eXtreme Deep Field 20120925 12.54 MB 2382×2078 hs-2012-37-a-full_tif
Hubble XDF (eXtreme Deep Field) of upper left center of HUDF: Rich Murray 2012.09.25
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Hubble astronomers capture deepest view yet of night sky
New image adds 5,500 galaxies to previous deep-field view and shows objects formed 500m years after universe’s birth
Reuters in Cape Canaveral, Florida
guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 25 September 2012 20.33 EDT
A portrait of Hubble’s deepest ever view of the universe, called the eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF. Photograph: Reuters
Piecing together 10 years of Hubble space telescope images, astronomers on Tuesday unveiled the deepest view yet of a small sliver of the night sky, revealing a kaleidoscope of galaxies and other celestial objects.
The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF, adds another 5,500 galaxies to Hubble’s 2003 and 2004 view into a tiny patch of the farthest universe.
Hubble returned to the same target more than 50 times over the past decade, racking up an additional 2m seconds of exposure time. The most distant objects found date back to about 500m years after the universe’s formation some 13.7bn years ago.
The early universe was a violent place, filled with colliding and merging galaxies that radiate in bright blue light, a telltale sign of new star formation.
The Hubble portrait also shows brilliantly shining spiral galaxies and older red fuzzy galaxies whose star-formation days are over.
More than 2,000 images of the same field, taken by Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and its near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3, were combined to form the XDF.
"XDF is the deepest image of the sky ever obtained," astronomer Garth Illingworth, with the University of California at Santa Cruz, said in a statement. "It allows us to explore further back in time than ever before."
heic1214 – Photo Release
Hubble goes to the eXtreme to assemble the deepest ever view of the Universe
25 September 2012
Click to Enlarge
Like photographers assembling a portfolio of their best shots, astronomers have assembled a new, improved portrait of our deepest-ever view of the Universe. Called the eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF, the photo was assembled by combining ten years of NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observations taken of a patch of sky within the original Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The XDF is a small fraction of the angular diameter of the full Moon.
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is an image of a small area of space in the constellation of Fornax (The Furnace), created using Hubble Space Telescope data from 2003 and 2004. By collecting faint light over one million seconds of observation, the resulting image revealed thousands of galaxies, both nearby and very distant, making it the deepest image of the Universe ever taken at that time.
The new full-colour XDF image is even more sensitive than the original Hubble Ultra Deep Field image, thanks to the additional observations, and contains about 5500 galaxies, even within its smaller field of view. The faintest galaxies are one ten-billionth the brightness that the unaided human eye can see .
Magnificent spiral galaxies similar in shape to the Milky Way and its neighbour the Andromeda galaxy appear in this image, as do large, fuzzy red galaxies in which the formation of new stars has ceased. These red galaxies are the remnants of dramatic collisions between galaxies and are in their declining years as the stars within them age.
Peppered across the field are tiny, faint, and yet more distant galaxies that are like the seedlings from which today’s magnificent galaxies grew. The history of galaxies — from soon after the first galaxies were born to the great galaxies of today, like the Milky Way — is laid out in this one remarkable image.
Hubble pointed at a tiny patch of southern sky in repeat visits made over the past decade with a total exposure time of two million seconds . More than 2000 images of the same field were taken with Hubble’s two primary cameras: the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3, which extends Hubble’s vision into near-infrared light. These were then combined to form the XDF.
“The XDF is the deepest image of the sky ever obtained and reveals the faintest and most distant galaxies ever seen. XDF allows us to explore further back in time than ever before,” said Garth Illingworth of the University of California at Santa Cruz, principal investigator of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2009 (HUDF09) programme.
The Universe is 13.7 billion years old, and the XDF reveals galaxies that span back 13.2 billion years in time. Most of the galaxies in the XDF are seen when they were young, small, and growing, often violently as they collided and merged together. The early Universe was a time of dramatic birth for galaxies containing brilliant blue stars far brighter than our Sun. The light from those past events is just arriving at Earth now, and so the XDF is a time tunnel into the distant past when the Universe was just a fraction of its current age. The youngest galaxy found in the XDF existed just 450 million years after the Universe’s birth in the Big Bang.
Before Hubble was launched in 1990, astronomers were able to see galaxies up to about seven billion light-years away, half way back to the Big Bang. Observations with telescopes on the ground were not able to establish how galaxies formed and evolved in the early Universe.
Hubble gave astronomers their first view of the actual forms of galaxies when they were young. This provided compelling, direct visual evidence that the Universe is truly changing as it ages. Like watching individual frames of a motion picture, the Hubble deep surveys reveal the emergence of structure in the infant Universe and the subsequent dynamic stages of galaxy evolution.
The planned NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope (Webb telescope) will be aimed at the XDF, and will study it with its infrared vision. The Webb telescope will find even fainter galaxies that existed when the Universe was just a few hundred million years old. Because of the expansion of the Universe, light from the distant past is stretched into longer, infrared wavelengths. The Webb telescope’s infrared vision is ideally suited to push the XDF even deeper, into a time when the first stars and galaxies formed and filled the early “dark ages” of the Universe with light.
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.
The HUDF09 team members are
G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz),
R. Bouwens (Leiden University),
M. Carollo (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH)),
M. Franx (Leiden University),
I. Labbe (Leiden University),
D. Magee and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz),
M. Stiavelli (Space Telescope Science Institute),
M. Trenti (University of Cambridge),
P. van Dokkum (Yale University),
and V. Gonzalez (University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory).
 The faintest objects detected in the XDF are 31st magnitude.
 The total exposure time is approximately two million seconds, or 23 days.
Because Hubble can only observe for about 45 minutes of every 97-minute orbit, the observations that make up the XDF represent 50 days of telescope time.
Image credit: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bouwens (Leiden University), and the HUDF09 Team
Images of Hubble
Garth Illingworth ,
University of California
Santa Cruz, California, USA
Richard Hook , ,
Ray Villard ,
Space Telescope Science Institute
2382 x 2078 px
about 4 Full Moons wide = 1 deg => 1 square deg ?
annotated with maximum z 10.3
The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (annotated)
Click to Enlarge
This image, called the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF), combines Hubble observations taken over the past decade of a small patch of sky in the constellation of Fornax. With a total of over two million seconds of exposure time, it is the deepest image of the Universe ever made, combining data from previous images including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field of 2002/3 and Hubble Ultra Deep Field infrared image of 2009.
The image covers an area less than a tenth of the width of the full Moon, making it just a 30 millionth of the whole sky. Yet even in this tiny fraction of the sky, the long exposure reveals about 5500 galaxies, some of them so distant we see them when the Universe was less than 5% of its current age.
The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field image contains several of the most distant objects ever identified.
Among these are:
UDFj-39546284, at a redshift of 10.3, is a candidate for the most distant galaxy yet discovered, though it is awaiting spectroscopic confirmation
Supernova Primo, at a redshift of 1.55, the most distant type Ia supernova ever observed
UDFy-38135539, at a redshift of 8.6, is the most distant galaxy to have had its distance independently corroborated with spectroscopy
UDFy-33435698, at a redshift of 8.6
NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bouwens (Leiden University), and the HUDF09 Team
About the Image
Release date:25 September 2012, 19:00
Size:2382 x 2078 px
About the Object
Name:Hubble Ultra Deep Field
Type:• Early Universe : Cosmology : Morphology : Deep Field
• Cosmology Images/Videos
Colours & filters
775Hubble Space Telescope
R606 nmHubble Space Telescope
B435 nmHubble Space Telescope
814Hubble Space Telescope
850Hubble Space Telescope
1050Hubble Space Telescope
J1.25 μmHubble Space Telescope
H1.6 μmHubble Space Telescope
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AST XDF Hubble eXtreme Deep Field 20120925 12.54 MB 2382×2078 hs-2012-37-a-full_tif
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